Discourse uses something called trust levels. The higher the trust level the higher rank you hold within that community. The gamification is that in order to get these TLs you must like post etc and that gives you badges along the way.
See these helpful links below
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Understanding Discourse Trust Levels
The user trust system is a fundamental cornerstone of Discourse. Trust levels are a way of… Sandboxing new users in your community so that they cannot accidentally hurt themselves, or other users while they are learning what to do. Granting experienced users more rights over time, so that they can help everyone maintain and moderate…
Badges in Discourse reinforce positive user behaviour and facilitates “learning by doing”. It is a central part of Discourse’s
There are two ways to receive a badge:
Manually granted by an administrative user
Automatically granted by the system
Furthermore, all badges have some optional properties.
Allow badge to be used as a title
Can be granted multiple times
Show badge on the public badges page
Show post granting badge on badge page